Survey of facta and analyses published in an article by Acad. Painter M. Hamsik and RNDr. J. Tomek (Umění XXXI, 1983, pp. 308-317) and elsewhere, including the preceding study I 010.

Individual ground layers do not survive complete in all samples and their order and places differ, even in the same field. They seem to have been applied always after the grinding down of the surface.

A continuous ochre ground layer appeared in Bohemia panel painting far later, but it has a certain analogy in Western Europe. In mural painting this oil layer served the purpose of insulating the actual painting from the supporting plaster.


Even if black drawing appears sporadically in 14th century mural painting, its use was exceptional. For it is rather difficult to cover the black lines, and demanding a covering (opaque) layer of paint. In panel painting a layer of lead white served to hide the black drawing; this is typical of the technique used by Master Theodoric.

In all compared cases the manner of applying layers of paint and the method of modelling are analogous to panel painting. The selection of pigments is also identical to panel painting.: pigments were used that are otherwise exclusive to panel painting, their impermanence in the mural technique must have been known. This can be explained solely by trust in the oil bonding medium that proved its worth as an additional protection from atmospheric influences.

Ground layers
The Emmaus Monastery The Holy Rood Chapel St. Vitus' Cathedral, ambulatory chapels Theodoric's panel paintings
grey siliceous layer grey siliceous layer bounded with starch, with the addition of glue and oil grey siliceous layer bounded with glue, with the addition of oil grey siliceous ground layer is
characteristic for Bohemian panel
painting and polychromy
chalk ground /cocotites/     the chalk layer identified in Emmaus Monastery is a current groundingmaterial for panel painting
layer coloured with yellow ochre with an admixture of red ochre yellow ochre with a small part of red
ochre and lead white; oil bounded
yellow ochre with an admixture of red ochre; oil bounded  
  picture of the Apocalyptical God, blue background: additional insulation by colourless oil paint, to minimalise the absorption of mortar   the insulation paint contains oil and
protein /in Bohemia oil insulation
was found on Theodoric 's paintings
for the first time

preparatory brush drawing grey: fields 3-8** red-brown: in the other fields black to grey black to grey black to grey
  on some places the painting is separated by a lead white layer   lead white layer, suppressing the sharpness of the black drawing, oil bounded
plastic haloes: the material is composed of brown, yellow and red ochres with a black admixture /only in the 3rd field - The Last Supper/ the plastic ornaments contain grey siliceous material with an admixture of yellow and red ochres bounded with corn starch, glue added the plastic ornaments contain grey siliceous material plast, ornaments containing grey siliceous material are bounded with starch, oil and protein; on the surface of the robe are placed on oil bounded layer of red ochre and red lead
  the gold foil is fixed on coulourless
oil paint, sometimes with an ochre undercoat
the gold foil lies on a greyblack oil layer /chapel of St Erhard and St Otilia/ oil gilding on the pastiglia
the binding medium of the paint /tempera/ is insoluble and contains proteins only - clearly lime casemate painting bonded by proteins with the
addition of oil /the oil part varies in
individual layers/
oil bunded, some layers contain in addition to oil also proteins; solely lead white, vermilion and azurite are oil bounded painting bonded with proteins with an admixture of oil; the amount of oil varies in layers /analogously the glazes; sporadically only with proteins/